According to the post-mortem report, the beating caused a breakdown in Kugan's muscle cells, which then congested the blood flow which in turn caused a kidney failure.
These V-shaped burn marks are believed to have been caused by a hot iron.
The second, which examined the entire body, found 42 other marks, burns and contusions from the sole of his feet right up to his head.
The UMMC pathologist declared, based on the post-mortem, that Kugan was beaten so badly that his tissues broke down and his kidneys failed, Surendran said.
The pathologist also found that Kugan had suffered hemorrhaging in his trachea, chest, spleen, stomach, the back of his neck and spine, and there were also signs of hemorrhaging in his heart.
The soles of his feet had many bruises caused by beatings and he also suffered blunt trauma to his skull.